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# Chapter 13  The standard objects

Pervasives defines the objects that are defined in all programs. The following objects are defined.

## 13.1  Pervasives objects

### 13.1.1  Object

Parent objects: none.

The Object object is the root object. Every class is a subclass of Object.

It provides the following fields:

• $(o.object-length): the number of fields and methods in the object. • $(o.object-mem <var>): returns true iff the <var> is a field or method of the object.
• $(o.object-add <var>, <value>): adds the field to the object, returning a new object. • $(o.object-find <var>): fetches the field or method from the object; it is equivalent to $(o.<var>), but the variable can be non-constant. • $(o.object-map <fun>): maps a function over the object. The function should take two arguments; the first is a field name, the second is the value of that field. The result is a new object constructed from the values returned by the function.
• o.object-foreach: the object-foreach form is equivalent to object-map, but with altered syntax.
   o.object-foreach(<var1>, <var2>)
<body>


For example, the following function prints all the fields of an object o.

   PrintObject(o) =
o.object-foreach(v, x)
println($(v) =$(x))


The export form is valid in a object-foreach body. The following function collects just the field names of an object.

   FieldNames(o) =
names[] =
o.object-foreach(v, x)
names[] += $(v) export return$(names)


### 13.1.2  Map

Parent objects: Object.

A Map object is a dictionary from values to values. The <key> values are restricted to simple values: integers, floating-point numbers, strings, files, directories, and arrays of simple values.

The Map object provides the following methods.

• $(o.length): the number of items in the map. • $(o.mem <key>): returns true iff the <key> is defined in the map.
• $(o.add <key>, <value>): adds the field to the map, returning a new map. • $(o.find <key>): fetches the field from the map.
• $(o.keys): fetches an array of all the keys in the map, in alphabetical order. • $(o.values): fetches an array of all the values in the map, in the alphabetical order of the corresponding keys.
• $(o.map <fun>): maps a function over the map. The function should take two arguments; the first is a field name, the second is the value of that field. The result is a new object constructed from the values returned by the function. • o.foreach: the foreach form is equivalent to map, but with altered syntax.  o.foreach(<var1>, <var2>) <body>  For example, the following function prints all the fields of an object o.  PrintObject(o) = o.foreach(v, x) println($(v) = $(x))  The export form is valid in a foreach body. The following function collects just the field names of the map.  FieldNames(o) = names = o.foreach(v, x) names +=$(v)
export
return $(names)  There is also simpler syntax when the key is a string. The table can be defined using definitions with the form $|key| (the number of pipe symbols | is allowed to vary).

    $|key 1| = value1$||key1|key2|| = value2    # The key is key1|key2
X = $|key 1| # Define X to be the value of field$|key 1|


The usual modifiers are also allowed. The expression $|key| represents lazy evaluation of the key, and $,|key| is normal evaluation.

### 13.1.3  Number

Parent objects: Object.

The Number object is the parent object for integers and floating-point numbers.

### 13.1.4  Int

Parent objects: Number.

The Int object represents integer values.

### 13.1.5  Float

Parent objects: Number.

The Float object represents floating-point numbers.

### 13.1.6  Sequence

Parent objects: Object.

The Sequence object represents a generic object containing sequential elements. It provides the following methods.

• $(s.length): the number of elements in the sequence. • $(s.map <fun>): maps a function over the fields in the sequence. The function should take one argument. The result is a new sequence constructed from the values returned by the function.
• s.foreach: the foreach form is equivalent to map, but with altered syntax.
   s.foreach(<var>)
<body>


For example, the following function prints all the elements of the sequence.

   PrintSequence(s) =
s.foreach(x)
println(Elem = $(x))  The export form is valid in a foreach body. The following function counts the number of zeros in the sequence.  Zeros(s) = count =$(int 0)
s.foreach(v)
if $(equal$(v), 0)
count = $(add$(count), 1)
export
export
return $(count)  • $(s.forall <fun>): tests whether each element of the sequence satifies a predicate.
• $(s.exists <fun>): tests whether the sequence contains an element that satisfies a predicate. • $(s.sort <fun>): sorts a sequence. The <fun> is a comparison function. It takes two elements (x, y) of the sequence, compares them, and returns a negative number if x < y, a positive number if x > y, and zero if the two elements are equal.
  osh> items = $(int 0 3 -2) osh> items.forall(x =>$(gt $x, 0)) - : bool = false osh> items.exists(x =>$(gt $x, 0)) - : bool = true osh> items.sort($(compare))
- : Array = -2 3 0


### 13.1.7  Array

Parent objects: Sequence.

The Array is a random-access sequence. It provides the following additional methods.

• $(s.nth <i>): returns element i of the sequence. • $(s.rev <i>): returns the reversed sequence.

### 13.1.8  String

Parent objects: Array.

### 13.1.9  Fun

Parent objects: Object.

The Fun object provides the following methods.

• $(f.arity): the arity if the function. ### 13.1.10 Rule Parent objects: Object. The Rule object represents a build rule. It does not currently have any methods. ### 13.1.11 Target Parent object: Object. The Target object contains information collected for a specific target file. • target: the target file. • effects: the files that may be modified by a side-effect when this target is built. • scanner_deps: static dependencies that must be built before this target can be scanned. • static-deps: statically-defined build dependencies of this target. • build-deps: all the build dependencies for the target, including static and scanned dependencies. • build-values: all the value dependencies associated with the build. • build-commands: the commands to build the target. • output-file: if output was diverted to a file, with one of the --output-* options A, this field names that file. Otherwise it is false. The object supports the following methods. • find(file): returns a Target object for the given file. Raises a RuntimeException if the specified target is not part of the project. • find-optional(file): returns a Target object for the given file, or false if the file is not part of the project. NOTE: the information for a target is constructed dynamically, so it is possible that the Target object for a node will contain different values in different contexts. The easiest way to make sure that the Target information is complete is to compute it within a rule body, where the rule depends on the target file, or the dependencies of the target file. ### 13.1.12 Node Parent objects: Object. The Node object is the parent object for files and directories. It supports the following operations. • $(node.stat): returns a Stat object for the file. If the file is a symbolic link, the stat information is for the destination of the link, not the link itself.
• $(node.lstat): returns a stat object for the file or symbolic link. • $(node.unlink): removes the file.
• $(node.rename <file>): renames the file. • $(node.link <file>): creates a hard link <dst> to this file.
• $(node.symlink <file>): create a symbolic link <dst> to this file. • $(node.chmod <perm>): change the permission of this file.

### 13.1.16  InChannel

Parent objects: Channel.

A InChannel is an input channel. The variable stdin is the standard input channel.

It provides the following methods.

• $(InChannel.fopen <file>): open a new input channel. • $(InChannel.of-string <string>): open a new input channel, using a string as input.

### 13.1.17  OutChannel

Parent object: Channel.

A OutChannel is an output channel. The variables stdout and stderr are the standard output and error channels.

It provides the following methods.

• $(OutChannel.fopen <file>): open a new output channel. • $(OutChannel.string): open a new output channel, writing to a string.
• $(OutChannel.to-string): get the current string of output, for an output channel created as OutChannel.open-string. • $(OutChannel.append <file>): opens a new output channel, appending to the file.
• $(c.flush): flush the output channel. • $(c.print <string>): print a string to the channel.
• \$(c.println <string>): print a string to the channel, followed by a line terminator.

### 13.1.18  Location

Parent objects: Location.

The Location object represents a location in a file.

### 13.1.19  Exception

Parent objects: Object.

The Exception object is used as the base object for exceptions. It has no fields.

### 13.1.20  RuntimeException

Parent objects: Exception.

The RuntimeException object represents an exception from the runtime system. It has the following fields.

• position: a string representing the location where the exception was raised.
• message: a string containing the exception message.

### 13.1.21  UnbuildableException

Parent objects: Exception.

The UnbuildableException object should be used to signal that a target is not buildable. It will be caught by functions such as target-exists. This exception has the following fields:

• target: indicates which target is not buildable.
• message: a string containing the exception message.

### 13.1.22  Shell

Parent objects: Object.

The Shell object contains the collection of builtin functions available as shell commands.

You can define aliases by extending this object with additional methods. All methods in this class are called with one argument: a single array containing an argument list.

• echo

The echo function prints its arguments to the standard output channel.

• jobs

The jobs method prints the status of currently running commands.

• cd

The cd function changes the current directory. Note that the current directory follows the usual scoping rules. For example, the following program lists the files in the foo directory, but the current directory is not changed.

   section
echo Listing files in the foo directory...
cd foo
ls

echo Listing files in the current directory...
ls

• bg

The bg method places a job in the background. The job is resumed if it has been suspended.

• fg

The fg method brings a job to the foreground. The job is resumed if it has been suspended.

• stop

The stop method suspends a running job.

• wait

The wait function waits for a running job to terminate. It is not possible to wait for a suspended job.

The job is not brought to the foreground. If the wait is interrupted, the job continues to run in the background.

• kill

The kill function signal a job.

kill [signal] <pid...>.

The signals are either numeric, or symbolic. The symbolic signals are named as follows.

ABRT, ALRM, HUP, ILL, KILL, QUIT, SEGV, TERM, USR1, USR2, CHLD, STOP, TSTP, TTIN, TTOU, VTALRM, PROF.

• exit

The exit function terminates the current session.

• which, where

See the documentation for the corresponding functions.

• rehash

Reset the search path.

• ln-or-cp src dst

Links or copies src to dst, overwriting dst. Namely, ln-or-cp would first delete the dst file (unless it is a directory), if it exists. Next it would try to create a symbolic link dst poiting to src (it will make all the necessary adjustmnents of relative paths). If symbolic link can not be created (e.g. the OS or the filesystem does not support symbolic links), it will try to create a hard link. If that fails too, it will try to forcibly copy src to dst.

• history

Print the current command-line history.

• digest

Print the digests of the given files.

• grep
   grep [-q] [-n] pattern files...


The grep function calls the omake grep function.

• Internal versions of standard system commands.

By default, omake uses internal versions of the following commands: cp, mv, cat, rm, mkdir, chmod, test, find. If you really want to use the standard system versions of these commands, set the USE_SYSTEM_COMMANDS as one of the first definitions in your OMakeroot file.

• mkdir
    mkdir [-m <mode>] [-p] files


The mkdir function is used to create directories. The -verb+-m+ option can be used to specify the permission mode of the created directory. If the -p option is specified, the full path is created.

• cp
• mv
    cp [-f] [-i] [-v] src dst
cp [-f] [-i] [-v] files dst
mv [-f] [-i] [-v] src dst
mv [-f] [-i] [-v] files dst


The cp function copies a src file to a dst file, overwriting it if it already exists. If more than one source file is specified, the final file must be a directory, and the source files are copied into the directory.

-f
Copy files forcibly, do not prompt.
-i
Prompt before removing destination files.
-v
Explain what is happening.
• rm
   rm [-f] [-i] [-v] [-r] files
rmdir [-f] [-i] [-v] [-r] dirs


The rm function removes a set of files. No warnings are issued if the files do not exist, or if they cannot be removed.

Options:

-f
Forcibly remove files, do not prompt.
-i
Prompt before removal.
-v
Explain what is happening.
-r
Remove contents of directories recursively.
• chmod
    chmod [-r] [-v] [-f] mode files


The chmod function changes the permissions on a set of files or directories. This function does nothing on Win32. The mode may be specified as an octal number, or in symbolic form [ugoa]*[-=][rwxXstugo]+. See the man page for chmod for details.

Options:

-r
Change permissions of all files in a directory recursively.
-v
Explain what is happening.
-f
Continue on errors.
• cat
   cat files...


The cat function prints the contents of the files to stdout

• test

test expression
[ expression +]+
[ --help
[ --version
See the documentation for the test function.

• find
   find \emph{expression}


See the documentation for the find` function.

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